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1 year ago

The results indicate that moss

The results indicate that A66 moss bags represent a means to extensively screen air pollution over large urban areas to obtain information on the time-integrated spatial distributions of particle-bound heavy metals and PAHs, demonstrating the moss bags\' potential for epidemiological studies (Gailey and Lloyd, 1993, Hellstr?m et al., 2004 and Wolterbeek and Verburg, 2004).
5. Conclusion
AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to the Secretariat for Environmental Protection of Belgrade and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (project No III43007) for financial support and to bilateral cooperation with Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia.

1 year ago

Conclusions Effective treatment of effluent generated by on site wastewater

5. Conclusions
Effective treatment of effluent generated by on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTS) is essential for the protection of groundwater and surface water quality. This combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation, carried out to assess of the impact of an OSWTS located over a thin layer of glacial till subsoil resting on a poorly productive greywacke/shale bedrock aquifer, has demonstrated that microbiologically contaminated effluent has the capacity to cause gross contamination of groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the percolation area. At the Drumaliss Test Site this Ro 31-8220 occurred in a hydrogeological setting where the role of attenuation in the vadose zone proved negligible. The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study provided a means for investigating impacts of OSWTS effluent to groundwater both close to the percolation and at distance.
The contributions made by seismic profiling and ERT in this investigation demonstrate the value of geophysics as an integral element of a site characterisation programme aimed at improving understanding of the impacts of OSWTS pollution on groundwater water quality in areas underlain by poorly productive aquifers. Observations of comparable geophysical characteristics in Lower Palaeozoic shales elsewhere in Ireland suggest that the deposits investigated in this study are widespread. This is corroborated by observations made by soil scientists working in areas underlain by Ordovician and Silurian shales across the northern part of Ireland, covered by Drumlins, who noted that weathered shale forms the standard overburden material over intact shale bedrock (M. Breathnach, Soil Survey of Ireland (Ret.), pers comm). Consequently the phenomena observed in this study are suspected to be more widespread than previously anticipated.

1 year ago

The isothermal section is mainly characterized by tie lines between

The isothermal section Torin 2 mainly characterized by tie-lines between binary phases. The following binary phases were found stable at 900 °C: Ti6Sn5, Ti5Sn3, Ti2Sn, Ti3Sn, Ti5Si3, Ti5Si4, TiSi and TiSi2. Except for Ti5Sn3, Ti2Sn, Ti3Sn and Ti5Si3, negligible solubility of the third component in the binary phases can be deduced from our measurements. The solubility of Si in Ti5Sn3, Ti2Sn and Ti3Sn at 900 °C reaches 12.4 at.%, 3.7 at.% and 5.1 at.% respectively. The solubility of Sn in Ti5Si3 is 3.6 at.%. The lattice parameter of the Ti5Sn3 phase, refined over from XRD patterns from alloys A1, A7 and A8 consisting of the Ti5Sn3 phase, converges to a = 8.036 Å, c = 5.454 Å. The value of a is less than the value a = 8.049 Å, that we refined for the pure binary compound (Ti5Sn3). This difference between lattice parameters results from the substitution of ternary element Si in Ti5Sn3 and from the radii difference between Ti, Sn and Si (rTi = 1.467 Å, rSn = 1.542 Å and rsi = 1.316 Å [34]).

1 year ago

Gutierrez et al reported that a

The exposure of the entire sewer line to pH 11.5 for 6 h was adequate for complete control of methane production for more than 2 weeks. A 67% decrease in sulfide production occurred in the 2 days following the alkali shock-dosing. The SRB activity recovered gradually over a period of 7 days, while the methanogenic activity took much longer to recover. Recently, a new caustic generation system (Pikaar et al., 2011 and Pikaar 'CHIR-98014' et al., 2013) has been able to continuously produce, in-situ, ca.

1 year ago

GDC-0994 Fig xA a A SEM image of

Further addition of H2S to 0.3% slightly improved the peak power density to 105 mW cm−2. From that point on, there were no significant variations when H2S concentration was increased to higher levels and a plateau of peak power density had been reached. In contrast, when the balance gas was switched from H2 to Ar that is inert, the 'GDC-0994' maximum power density was merely 45 mW cm−2 in 0.5% H2S + Ar.

1 year ago

The catalytic activities of Pd

2.5. Catalytic reduction of CrVI
For the reduction of CrVI, K2Cr2O7 was the source of CrVI and HCOOH was the TH287 donor under an acidic solution. Typically, 20 μL of Pd-NWWs aqueous solution (2.0 g L−1) was added into 10 mL of 0.8 mM K2Cr2O7 + 0.45 M HCOOH mixture solution under gentle magnetic stirring. The reaction process was monitored by measuring the UV–Vis’ absorbance of K2Cr2O7 at 350 nm. For comparison, commercial Pd black was used as the catalyst for the catalytic reduction of CrVI.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Characterization of Pd-NWWs
Fig. 1. (A) SEM image, (B) EDX spectrum, (C) Pd 3d XPS spectrum, and (D) XRD pattern of Pd-NWWs.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The morphology and structure of the as-synthesized Pd-NWWs were further characterized by TEM. The TEM images show that the Pd-NWWs consist of Pd nanowires with an average diameter of 3.5 ± 1.0 nm and length of a few tens of nanometers (Fig. 2A and B). The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of the Pd-NWWs shows the discrete diffraction rings (Fig. 2C), suggesting that the Pd-NWWs are polycrystalline. Further the high resolution TEM (HR-TEM) image shows the d-spacing of 0.221 nm (Fig. 2D), which is close to the (1 1 1) inter-planar distance of fcc Pd (0.226 nm). Mainly, PAH preferentially binds onto the (1 1 1) facets of Pd nanocrystals, resulting in the restricted growth of the ( 11 1) facets [29]. Moreover, it is clearly observed that fringes are discontinuous, predicting the oriented attachment grown mechanism [34].

1 year ago

The influence of the pH has also been studied

EO provides a simple, viable and promising method for the remediation of sanitary landfill leachates. This electrochemical method allows high treatment efficiencies without the disadvantage of sludge production. Under appropriate experimental conditions, it CID 2011756 can remove most of the COD, almost all ammonia, and it also reduces significantly the color, without the accumulation of refractory organics.
Although all the electrochemical methods treated in this paper have high potential to efficiently treat sanitary landfill leachates, before a sustainable electrochemical process can be implemented at full-scale, further research needs to be developed regarding new and/or improved electrode materials, different electrode types and arrangements and more sophisticated reactor operational strategies, in order to reduce operational costs and to overcome some other identified drawbacks. With the same goal, integration of these methods with each other or with other treatment methods should also be more explored. Outstanding works have been developed in order to switch from standard landfill management mode to a more environmentally sustainable one, and one of the latest reports have also revealed the real possibility of using blended leachate as a fertigant for the re-vegetation of the walls of the closed landfills [94].